List of active separatist movements in Europe

List of active separatist movements in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of active separatist movements in Europe. Red names indicate regions with movements that only claim greater autonomy within the actual state. Black names indicate regions with important secessionist movements, although both categories include moderate movements. The nations highlighted in colors are the territories claimed by the local nationalist groups, including areas out of the state’s borders and cases of annexation to other states (click to enlarge).

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.[2]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

  • De facto state (de facto entity): for unrecognized regions with de facto autonomy;
  • Proposed state: proposed name for a seceding sovereign state;
  • Proposed autonomous area: for movements towards greater autonomy for an area but not outright secession;

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.

Albania Albania[edit]

 Northern Epirus[3][4]

Azerbaijan Azerbaijan[edit]

Belgium Belgium[edit]

Further information: Partition of Belgium

 Brussels-Capital Region

 Flemish Region or the Flemish Community (the latter includes Brussels)

 German-speaking Community of Belgium

 Walloon Region

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

 Republika Srpska

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia

Bosnian Muslim Flag.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina Islamic State of Bosnia and Herzegovina [10][11][12]

Croatia Croatia[edit]



Cyprus Cyprus[edit]

Breakaway state:

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic Czech Republic[edit]


 Czech Silesia

Denmark Denmark[edit]

For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.


 Faroe Islands

Finland Finland[edit]


Sápmi (area) Sápmi

France France[edit]

Some of the claimed nations and/or regions – 1. Brittany, 2. France proper (excluding Wallonia), 3. Occitania, 4.Lorraine which is sometimes part of France proper, 5. Alsace, 6. Basque Country, 7. Catalonia and 8. Corsica.

Secessionist movements
Gradual and eventual secession
Autonomist movements

Georgia (country) Georgia[edit]

Breakaway states:

Flag of Abkhazia.svg


 South Ossetia

Proposed autonomous movements:

Armenia Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti

Azerbaijan Borchali Azerbaijanis

Germany Germany[edit]


 East Frisia



 Upper Silesia (Upper Silesia is a part of Poland)

Italy Italy[edit]



 South Tyrol

Kosovo Kosovo[edit]

See: International recognition of Kosovo

Serbia North Kosovo

Latvia Latvia[edit]

Latgale flag.JPG Latgale

Lithuania Lithuania[edit]


 Polish National-Territorial Region, transferred to Lithuania in 1939 by Soviets.


Breakaway state:


Autonomous region:


Netherlands Netherlands[edit]


  • Ethnic groupFrisian
    • Proposed autonomous region: Frisia
      • Political partyFrisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[27]

Norway Norway[edit]



Poland Poland[edit]

 Upper Silesia


  • Ethnic groupKashubians
    • Purposed autonomous areaKashubia
    • An association of people: Kaszëbskô Jednota who want to actively participate in the life of the Kashubian nation and who recognize its right to cultural autonomy and self-identity within the multi-ethnic society.

Portugal Portugal[edit]


Romania Romania[edit]

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania

Székely LandTransylvaniaBanatPartiumDobruja

Szekler National Council,[37] Hungarian National Council of TransylvaniaLiga Pro Europa, a Romanian-Hungarian regionalist NGO.,[36] Provincia, a group of intellectuals promoting regionalization of Romania.,[36] Autonomy for Transylvania (AFT) campaign, it demands autonomy for Transylvania.[38] Democratic League of Transylvania (Liga Transilvania Democrată), a regionalist NGO,[39] an active supporter of the “Autonomy for Transylvania” campaign.,[40] League of Banat (Liga Banateana), a regionalist NGO.[41][42]

Russia Russia[edit]

Russia’s North Caucasus[edit]

Russia’s other European regions[edit]

Serbia Serbia[edit]

Vojvodina Vojvodina


Preševo Valley

Breakaway state:

Kosovo Republic of Kosovo

Slovakia Slovakia[edit]

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia

Autonomist movements:

  • Political parties: Party of the Hungarian Community,[48] In 2010, the party renewed their demand for autonomy.[49]
    • Goals: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.[50]

Spain Spain[edit]

Areas in Spain with separatist movements.

 Canary Islands (Main article: Canarian nationalism)

 Andalusia (Main article: Andalusian nationalism)


 Asturias (Main article: Asturian nationalism)

Balearic Islands Balearic Islands:

‘”Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country (autonomous community) (Main article: Basque nationalism)


Catalonia Catalonia (Catalan independence)


 Galicia (Main article: Galician nationalism)

Template:Country data Bandera del País Leonés.svg (Leonese Country(Main article: Leonesismo)

Sweden Sweden[edit]

Sápmi (area) Sapmi


Switzerland Switzerland[edit]


  • Ethnic groupGenevan
    • Purposed state: La République de Genève” or “Free State of Geneva”


Flag of Canton of Tessin.svg Ticino

Turkey Turkey[edit]

Flag of Kurdistan.svg Northern Kurdistan [53]

Flag of Armenia.svg Western Armenia

Ukraine Ukraine[edit]

Breakaway state:

Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak


Purposed autonomous regions:


 Carpathian Ruthenia

Occupied territories:

 Republic of Crimea

 City of Sevastopol

United Kingdom United Kingdom and dependencies[edit]

The United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and the Republic of Ireland (click to enlarge)

Constituent countries of the United Kingdom[edit]

See also: Home Nations


 Cornwall (possibly including the ScillonianCross.svg Isles of Scilly)



Ceremonial counties in Southern England[66]

 Yorkshire (historical county)

Northern Ireland[edit]


Reunification of Northern Ireland with Ireland



Northern Isles ( Orkney and  Shetland)

Western Isles Council Flag.svg Outer Hebrides (Western Isles)



Crown dependencies[edit]

Channel Islands[edit]

 Bailiwick of Guernsey (including  Alderney Sark and other smaller islands and rocks)

 Bailiwick of Jersey (including smaller islands and rocks)

Isle of Man[edit]

Overseas Territories[edit]

For movements in other British Overseas Territories, see the List of active separatist movements in North America.


Note: There are disputes with Spain concerning Gibraltar and with Cyprus concerning Akrotiri and Dhekelia, another British Overseas Territory in Europe and Sovereign Base Areas. See alsoDisputed status of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia#Dispute with Cyprus. Other ideas (not separation) for constitutional reform of Gibraltar has been proposed:

  • The condominium, with sovereignty shared between the UK and Spain. It was proposed by the Spanish government, rejected by the British government.[82]
  • The devolved integration or incorporation into the United Kingdom itself. It aims to change the status of Gibraltar from a British overseas territory into an integral part of the UK. It is supported by the Integration With Britain Movement.

See also[edit]


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