List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll
This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the lowest estimate of death as well as the highest estimate, the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.
- 1 Wars, armed conflicts, and genocides
- 2 Famine
- 3 Floods and landslides
- 4 Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
- 5 Other deadly events
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Wars, armed conflicts, and genocides
||It has been suggested that this section be merged into List of wars by death toll. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2014.|
These figures of one million or more deaths include the deaths of civilians from diseases, famine, etc., as well as deaths of soldiers in battle and massacres and genocide. Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates. This is a sortable table. Click on the column sort buttons to sort results numerically or alphabetically.
The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) defines genocide in part as “acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group”. Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have disputed the interpretation and details of the event, often to the point of promoting different versions of the facts. An accusation of genocide will almost always be controversial. Determining the number of persons killed in each genocide can be just as difficult, with political, religious and ethnic biases or prejudices often leading to downplayed or exaggerated figures. Some of the accounts below may include ancillary causes of death such as malnutrition and disease, which may or may not have been intentionally inflicted.
|Event||Location||From||To||Duration (years)||Notes, See also|
|40,000,000||85,000,000||World War II||Worldwide||1939||1945||7||World War II casualtiesand Second Sino-Japanese War (this estimate includes worldwideHolocaust and concentration camps deaths)|
|30,000,000||30,000,000||Mongol conquests||Eurasia||1206||1368||163||Mongol Empire|
|25,000,000||25,000,000||Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming Dynasty||China||1616||1662||47||Qing Dynasty|
|20,000,000||100,000,000||Taiping Rebellion||China||1851||1864||14||Dungan revolt|
|World War I||Worldwide||1914||1918||5||World War I casualties
Upper estimate includes worldwide Spanish fludeaths.
|15,000,000||20,000,000||Conquests of Timur-e-Lang||West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Russia||1369||1405||37||Timurid dynasty|
|13,000,000||36,000,000||An Lushan Rebellion||China||755||763||9||Medieval warfare|
|8,000,000||12,000,000||Dungan revolt||China||1862||1877||16||Panthay Rebellion|
|5,000,000||30,000,000||Conquests by the Empire of Japan||Asia||1894||1945||52|
|9,000,000||Russian Civil War||Russia||1917||1921||5||Russian Revolution (1917), List of civil wars|
|Holocaust||Europe||1941||1945||4||The low estimate only accounts for Jewish deaths.|
|7,000,000||Napoleonic Wars||Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean||1803||1815||13||Napoleonic Wars casualties|
|3,000,000||11,500,000||Thirty Years’ War||Holy Roman Empire||1618||1648||31||Religious war|
|3,000,000||4,000,000||Deluge||Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth||1655||1660||6||Second Northern War|
|3,000,000||7,000,000||Yellow Turban Rebellion||China||184||205||22||Part of Three Kingdoms War|
|2,500,000||5,400,000||Second Congo War||Democratic Republic of the Congo||1998||2003||6||First Congo War|
|2,582,000||8,000,000||Holodomor (and Soviet famine of 1932–1933)||Ukrainian SSR (and other areas of southern USSR, western Siberia)||1932||1933||1||Targeted famine and forced relocation of Soviet ethnic groups, especially landed Ukrainian peasants, by Stalin Regime.|
|2,300,000||3,300,000||Hundred Years’ War||Western Europe||1337||1443||107||Edwardian War (1337-1360), Caroline War (1369-1389), Lancastrian War (1415–53)|
|European colonization of the Americas||Americas||1492||1900||408||Colonization, disease,ethnic cleansing and war.|
|2,000,000||4,000,000||French Wars of Religion||France||1562||1598||37||Religious war|
|Shaka‘s conquests||Africa||1816||1828||13||Ndwandwe–Zulu War|
|1,500,000||2,000,000||War in Afghanistan||Afghanistan||1979||2000||22||Soviet-Afghan War, Taliban Era. Death toll estimates through 1999 (2M) and 2000 (1.5M and 2M).|
|1,000,000||3,000,000||Nigerian Civil War||Nigeria||1967||1970||3||Civil war followed by ethnic cleansings of theIgbo people.|
|1,000,000||3,000,000||Cambodian Genocide||Cambodia||1975||1979||4||Political mass killings by communist forces.|
|1,000,000||3,000,000||Crusades||Holy Land, Europe||1095||1291||197||Religious war|
|1,000,000||2,000,000||Second Sudanese Civil War||Sudan||1983||2005||23||First Sudanese Civil War|
|900,000||1,000,000||Gallic Wars||France||58 BC||50 BC||9||Roman Empire|
|800,000||1,000,000||Du Wenxiu Rebellion||China||1856||1873||18|
|800,000||3,000,000||Vietnam War||Southeast Asia||1955||1975||21||Cold War and First Indochina War|
|600,000||2,000,000||Soviet War in Afghanistan||Afghanistan||1980||1988||9||Cold War|
|500,000||3,000,000||Expulsion of Germans after World War II||Europe||1945||1950||5||Ethnic cleansing of Germans after the redrawing of post-WWII borders.|
|500,000||2,000,000||Mexican Revolution||Mexico, United States||1911||1920||10||Pancho Villa andColumbus Raid|
|500,000||2,000,000||Iran–Iraq War||Iran, Iraq||1980||1988||9||Al-Anfal Campaign andInvasion of Kuwait|
|500,000||1,000,000||Rwandan genocide||Rwanda||1994||1994||1||Tribal genocide.|
|500,000||1,000,000||Spanish Civil War||Spain||1936||1939||4|
|400,000||4,500,000||Korean War||Korean Peninsula||1950||1953||4||Cold War|
|300,000||1,500,000||Armenian Genocide||Anatolia||1915||1923||8||Usually called the First Genocide of the 20th century. Despiterecognition by some twenty one countries as a genocide, Turkey disputes genocide by the Ottoman Empire.|
|300,000||1,200,000||Paraguayan War||South America||1864||1870||7||Military history of South America and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias|
|200,000||1,000,000||Greek genocide||Anatolia||1915||1923||8||Disputed by Turkey, but considered a genocide.|
|75,000||130,000||Massacres of Poles by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army||Volhyn and Eastern Galicia||1943||1944||1||Killings conducted by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on Polish civilians.|
|26,000||3,000,000||1971 Bangladesh genocide||East Pakistan (now Bangladesh)||1971||1971||1||Killings by the Pakistani Armed Forces in East Pakistan leading to theBangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Widely regarded as a genocide against Bengali people.|
Deadly prisons and camps
|Deaths||Name||Run by||Location||Date||Notes, References|
|800,000–1,500,000||Auschwitz-Birkenau||Nazi Germany||Oświęcim, Poland||1940–1945|||
|700,000–1,000,000||Treblinka||Nazi Germany||Treblinka, Poland||1942–1943|||
|480,000–600,000||Bełżec||Nazi Germany||Bełżec, Poland||1942–1943|||
|130,000–500,000||Kolyma Gulag||Soviet Union||Kolyma, Soviet Union||1932–1954|||
|12,790–75,000||Stara Gradiška||NDH Ustaše||Croatia||1941–1945||primarily for women and children|
|17,000||Tuol Sleng||Democratic Kampuchea||Phnom Penh, Cambodia||1975–1979|||
|13,171||Camp Sumter||Confederate States of America||Andersonville, Georgia, USA||1864–1865|||
|12,000||Crveni Krst||Nazi regime, Nedić’s Serbia||Niš, Serbia||1941|||
|9,000–10,000||Omarska||Bosnian Serb forces||Omarska, Bosnia and Herzegovina||1992|||
|2,963||Elmira Prison||United States of America||Elmira, New York, USA||1864–1865|||
|>1,800||Krugersdorp||United Kingdom||Krugersdorp, Transvaal Republic||c. 1900–1902||Second Boer War, primarily for women and children|
Note: Some of these famines were partially caused by nature.
This section includes famines that were caused or exacerbated by the policies or actions of the ruling regime.
|Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Event||Location||From||To||Notes|
|15,000,000||55,000,000||Great Chinese Famine||People’s Republic of China||1958||1962||During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death. State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.|
|5,000,000||10,000,000||Russian famine of 1921||Soviet Russia||1921||1922||See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union and Russian Civil War with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka|
|4,000,000||4,000,000||Bengal famine of 1943||British India||1943||1943||The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India’s main supply of rice importsHowever, administrative policies in British India ultimately helped cause the massive death toll.|
|2,400,000||2,400,000||Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies||Indonesia||1944||1945||An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but mainly by the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.|
|800,000||950,000||Cambodian Genocide||Cambodia||1975||1979||An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor and famine from the Cambodian Communist government, of which nearly half was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.|
|750,000||1,500,000||Great Irish Famine||United Kingdom||1846||1849||Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland—where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food—was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.|
|400,000||2,000,000||Vietnamese Famine of 1945||Vietnam||1944||1945||The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.|
|400,000||1,000,000||1983–85 famine in Ethiopia||Ethiopia||1983||1985||The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, and in particular the one of 1983–5, were in large part created by government policies.|
|70,000||70,000||Sudan famine||Sudan||1998||1998||The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.|
Floods and landslides
|1.||2,500,000–3,700,000||1931 China floods||China||1931|
|2.||900,000–2,000,000||1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood||China||1887|
|3.||500,000–700,000||1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood||China||1938|
|4.||26,000-230,000||The failure of 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture, Henan, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, caused by Typhoon Nina.||China||August 1975|
|5.||145,000||1935 Yangtze river flood||China||1935|
|6.||more than 100,000||St. Felix’s Flood, storm surge||Netherlands||1530|
|7.||100,000||Hanoi and Red River Delta flood||North Vietnam||1971|
|8.||100,000||1911 Yangtze river flood||China||1911|
|9.||50,000–80,000||St. Lucia’s flood, storm surge||Netherlands, England||1287|
|10.||10,000–50,000||Vargas Tragedy, landslide||Venezuela||1999|
|11.||2,400||North Sea flood, storm surge||Netherlands, Scotland, England,Belgium||31 January 1953|
|12.||2,209||Johnstown Flood||Pennsylvania||31 May 1889|
Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
|Lowest estimate||Highest estimate||Description||Group||Location||From||To||Notes|
|300,000||1,500,000||Human sacrifice in Aztec culture||Aztecs||Mexico||14th century||1521||Up to 3,000 sacrificed yearly|
|13,000||13,100||Human sacrifice||Shang dynasty||China||BC1300||BC1050||Last 250 years of rule|
|7,941||7,941||Ritual suicides||Sati||Bengal, British India||1815||1828|
|3,912||3,912||Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note||Imperial Japanese air forces||Pacific theatre||1944||1945|
|913||913||Jonestown murder-suicide||Followers of ThePeoples Temple cult||Jonestown||November 18, 1978||November 19, 1978|
|967||967||Mass suicide motivated religious and political.||Judean rebels||Masada||spring 73|
Other deadly events
Events with a large anthropogenic death toll not fitting any of the above classifications. May include deaths caused by famine, genocide, etc. as a portion of the total.
|49,000,000||78,000,000||Mao Zedong era1949–1976||People’s Republic of China||1949||1976||Millions of people died as a result of Mao Zedong’s reforms, with most of these deaths due to the Great Chinese Famine caused by mismanagement of agricultural resources during the Great Leap Forward. Millions more died as a result of human rights abuses. The total includes those who died during the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, the Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns, human rights abuses in Tibet, The Great Leap Forward (especially the resulting famine), and the Cultural Revolution. See also Mass killings under communist regimes.|
|8,000,000||61,000,000||Soviet crimes 1917–1953||Soviet Republics (1917–1922), theSoviet Union(1922–1953), the East and Center of Europe,Mongolia||1917||1953||War, forced collectivization, and poor central planning in the Soviet Republics and Soviet Union led to enormous famines in 1921, 1932–33, and 1946–47. Mass murders were also perpetrated by the Communist leaders of the Soviet Republics between 1917 and 1922 and later on in The Soviet Union during a period of 1922–1953 (until the death of Joseph Stalin). This includes terrors unleashed by Cheka during the Russian Civil War against nations and ‘enemies of The Revolution’, deaths in Gulags, forced resettlement, Holodomor, Dekulakization, Great Purge, National operations of the NKVD. See also Mass killings under communist regimes.|
|5,000,000||22,000,000||Crimes duringCongo Free State 1885–1908||Now theDemocratic Republic of the Congo||1885||1908||Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.|
|175,000||576,000||Sanctions against Iraq||Iraq||1990||1998||Sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council caused excess deaths of young children.|
|100,000||2,000,000||Indonesian killings of 1965–1966||Indonesia||1965||1966||Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965 and 1966. Death tolls are difficult to estimate.|
|100,000||250,000||War in the Vendée||France||1793||1796||Described as genocide by some historians but this claim has been widely discounted. See also French Revolution.|
|100,000||200,000||Bosnian genocide||Bosnia||1992||1995||During the Bosnian War, at least 100,000 people were killed.|
|100,000||120,000||Manila Massacre||Manila,Philippines||1945||1945||During the Battle of Manila, at least 100,000 civilians were killed.|
|90,800||202,600||Indonesian occupation of East Timor||East Timor||1974||1999||Civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness.|
|50,000||80,000||OperationCondor||South America||1975||1983||A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States|
|40,000||350,000||Nanking Massacre||Nanking, China||1937||1938||The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.|
|15,000||15,000||First Sack of Thessalonica||Byzantine Empire||904||904||The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.|
|10,000||100,000||Great Fire of Smyrna||Turkey||September 9, 1922||September 24, 1922||Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the evacuation of their former populations by British and American military forces. After the attacks 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.|
|9,000||30,000||Dirty War||Argentina||1976||1983||At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).|
Other lists organized by death toll
- List of accidents and disasters by death toll
- List of battles and other violent events by death toll
- List of events named massacres
- List of genocides by death toll
- List of murderers by number of victims
- List of natural disasters by death toll
- List of ongoing conflicts
- List of Australian disaster by death toll
- List of Canadian disasters by death toll
- List of New Zealand disasters by death toll
- List of United Kingdom disasters by death toll
- List of United States disasters by death toll
Other lists with similar topics
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- List of battles
- List of disasters
- List of earthquakes
- List of famines
- List of historic fires
- List of invasions
- List of massacres
- List of notable tropical cyclones
- List of riots
- List of terrorist incidents
- List of wars
- Lists of rail accidents
Topics dealing with similar themes
- Casualties of the Iraq War
- Genocide in history
- Infectious disease
- Mass killings under Communist regimes
- Mass murder
- Most lethal battles in world history
- United States casualties of war
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- – “The famine of 1932–33”, Encyclopædia Britannica. Quote: “The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33—a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians… Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine… Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated… The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself.”
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- Another estimate is that from the pre-war population of 1,337,437, the population fell to 221,709 (28,746 men, 106,254 women, 86,079 children) by the end of the war (War and the Breed, David Starr Jordan, p. 164. Boston, 1915; Applied Genetics, Paul Popenoe, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1918)
- Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story, Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York, 1919.
- Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia
- Rzeź wołyńska (pl)
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Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report, chapter 2, paragraph 33 (official 1974 Pakistani report).White, Matthew.“Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh”. Users.erols.com. “History: The Bangali Genocide, 1971”. Virtualbangladesh.com.
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- “Balkan ‘Auschwitz’ haunts Croatia”. BBC News. 2005-04-25. Retrieved 2010-09-29. “No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000.”
- Jelka Smreka. “STARA GRADIŠKA Ustaški koncentracijski logor”. Spomen područja Jasenovac. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- Davor Kovačić (2004). “Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Stara Gradiška i procjena broj žrtava”. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- A History of Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979). Documentation Center of Cambodia. p. 74. ISBN 99950-60-04-3.
- The Andersonville Prison Trial: The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, by General N.P. Chipman, 1911.
- “On the killing of Roma in World War II”. Mrc.org.rs. 2013-03-13. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Razprave in gradivo, Volume 55. Institut za Narodnostna Vprašanja. 2008.
- “The Unindicted: Reaping the Rewards of “Ethnic Cleansing” in Prijedor”. Human Rights Watch. 1997-01-01.
- “Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team report”.
- Horigan, Michael (2002). Death Camp of the North: The Elmira Civil War Prison Camp. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1432-2.
- Walker, DR (2011-09-20). “Burgershoop cemetery and concentration camp in Krugersdorp.”. The All at Sea Network. Retrieved 2011-12-21.
- Stéphane Courtois; Mark Kramer (1999-10-15). Livre Noir Du Communisme: Crimes, Terreur, Répression. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2.
- Wemheuer, Felix (July 2011). “Sites of horror: Mao’s Great Famine [with response]”. The China Journal (66): 155–164.JSTOR 41262812. on p.163 Frank Dikötter, in his response, quotes Yu Xiguang’s figure of 55 million
- Becker, Jasper (1998). Hungry Ghosts: Mao’s Secret Famine. Holt Paperbacks p.xi.
- Dikötter, Frank. Mao’s Great Famine: The History of China’s Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62. Walker & Company, 2010. p. 298.
- “How the U.S. saved a starving Soviet Russia: PBS film highlights Stanford scholar’s research on the 1921–23 famine“. Stanford University. April 4, 2011.
- Nicholas Tarling (Ed.) The Cambridge History of SouthEast Asia Vol.II Part 1 pp139-40
- Madhusree Mukerjee, Churchill’s Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II. See also Book review: Churchill’s secret war in India by Susannah York
- Van der Eng, Pierre (2008) ‘Food Supply in Java during War and Decolonisation, 1940–1950.’ MPRA Paper No. 8852, pp.35–38. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/8852/
- Bruce Sharp (2008), Counting Hell 2.Ben Kiernan, paragraph 3. Mekong.
- Marek Sliwinski (1995), Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique, L’Harmattan, p. 82.
- Foster, R.F. ‘Modern Ireland 1600–1972’. Penguin Press, 1988. p324. Foster’s footnote reads: “Based on hitherto unpublished work by C. Ó Gráda and Phelim Hughes, ‘Fertility trends, excess mortality and the Great Irish Famine’…Also see C.Ó Gráda and Joel Mokyr, ‘New developments in Irish Population History 1700–1850’, Economic History Review, vol. xxxvii, no.4 (November 1984), pp. 473–488.”
- Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society p. 1. Lee says ‘at least 800,000’.
- Vaughan, W.E. and Fitzpatrick, A.J.(eds). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy, 1978
- The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on 10 September 1996, for inclusion in the Holocaust and Genocide Curriculum at the secondary level. Revision submitted 11/26/98.
- Cecil Woodham-Smith (1991). The great hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. Penguin Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1.
- Dr Christine Kinealy (2006). This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine, 1845–52. ISBN 978-0-7171-4011-4.
- Charles Hirschman et al. “Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate”. Population and Development Review (December 1995).
- Koh, David (21 August 2008). “Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945”. The Straits Times (Singapore). Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- de Waal, Alex (2002) . Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-810-4.
- “Flashback 1984: Portrait of a famine“. BBC News. April 6, 2000.
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009), Famine: a short history,Princeton University Press, p. 24, ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3.
- Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily CNN, Accessed May 25, 2006
- “Worst Natural Disasters In History”. Nbc10.com. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
- Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China’s Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0.
- 230,000 is the highest of a range of unofficial estimates, including also deaths of ensuing epidemics and famine, in Yi 1998
- “The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice“, by Michael Harner. Natural History, April 1977, Vol. 86, No. 4, pages 46–51.
- National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
- Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, “Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century”, p.2(July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
- This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (seeKamikaze).
- The largest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
- “Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?”. Maoists.org. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield, paperback ed., Basic books, 1999.
- Steven Rosefielde (2010-02-15). Red Holocaust. Taylor & Francis. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-415-77757-5.
- Павел Полян, Не по своей воле… (Pavel Polian, Against Their Will… A History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR), ОГИ Мемориал, Moscow, 2001
- С. Уиткрофт (Stephen G. Wheatcroft), “О демографических свидетельствах трагедии советской деревни в 1931—1933 гг.
- Lynne Viola The Unknown Gulag. The Lost World of Stalin’s Special Settlements Oxford University Press 2007,
- Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments by Michael Ellman, 2002
- Vadim Rogovin “The Party of the Executed”
- Forbath, Peter. The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration, and Exploitation of the World’s Most Dramatic River, 1991 (Paperback). Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-122490-1.
- R. J. Rummel Exemplifying the Horror of European Colonization:Leopold’s Congo”
- p.226-232, Hochschild, Adam (1999), King Leopold’s Ghost, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, ISBN 0-547-52573-7
- Hochschild p.226–232.
- Crossette, Barbara. Iraq Sanctions Kill Children, U.N. Reports=1999.
- Garfield, Richard (1999). Morbidity and Mortality Among Iraqi Children from 1990 Through 1998: Assessing the Impact of the Gulf War and Economic Sanctions. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Cribb, Robert (2002). “Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966”. Asian Survey 42 (4): 550–563. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.4.550.
- Donald Greer, The Terror, a Statistical Interpretation,Cambridge (1935)
- Reynald Secher, La Vendée-Vengé, le Génocide franco-français (1986)
- Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Éditions du Seuil, collection Points, 1987 he gives the highest estimate of the civil war, including republican losses and premature death. However, he does not consider it as a genocide.
- Jacques Hussenet (dir.), « Détruisez la Vendée ! » Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007, p.148.
- Gough, Hugh (December 1987). “Genocide and the Bicentenary: The French Revolution and the Revenge of the Vendee”. The Historical Journal 30 (4). JSTOR 2639130.
- White, Matthew. “Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century”. Users.erols.com.
- “Conflict-related deaths in Timor-Leste 1974–1999”. Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- “Background on Chile”. The Center for Justice & Accountability. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi; Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi (2008). The Naking Atrocity: 1937–38. Berghahn Books. p. 362. ISBN 1-84545-180-5.
- Iris Chang (1997). The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. Basic Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7867-2760-5.
- Warren T. Treadgold (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. p. 572.ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
- Biondich, Mark. The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence Since 1878. Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 92 
- Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 52.
- Rudolph J. Rummel, Irving Louis Horowitz (1994). “Turkey’s Genocidal Purges”. Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56000-927-6., p. 233.
- Naimark. Fires of Hatred, pp. 47–52.
- Phil Gunson (2009-04-02). “The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009”. London: Guardian. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- PBS News Hour, 16 Oct. 1997, et al. Argentina Death Toll, Twentieth Century Atlas
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