List of battles by casualties

List of battles by casualties

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of the casualty count in battles in world history. The list includes both sieges (not technically battles but usually yielding similar combat-related deaths) and civilian casualties during the battles. Large battle casualty counts are almost impossible to calculate precisely. Many of these figures are estimates, and, where possible, a range of estimates is presented. Figures display numbers of all types of casualties when available (killedwoundedmissing, and sick) but may only include number killed. Where possible, the list specifies whether or not prisoners are included in the count. This list does not include most bombing runs or missile strikes (such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki), which, despite potentially massive casualties, are not typically classified as “battles,” since they are usually one-sided engagements. Tactical or strategic strikes, however, may form part of larger engagements which are themselves battles.

 

 

Classical formation battles[edit]

These refer to battles in which armies met on a single field of battle and fought each other for anywhere from one to several days. With more advanced weapons, military formations lost their impact and use of this type of battle died out in favor of grander military operations. Many of these battles are ancient and old, and in several cases, the few extant historical records differ, sometimes wildly, on casualties. Entries here use modern figures when available.

This list is sortable. Click a column heading to sort by that criterion.

Battle Conflict Casualties Year
Battle of Qarqar Assyrian Conquest of Syria Approximately 14,000[1] 853 BC
Battle of Thymbra Lydian–Persian War Approximately 100,000[1] 547 BC
Battle of Thermopylae Greco–Persian Wars 22,300[2]–22,500[3] 480 BC
Battle of Plataea Greco–Persian Wars 51,500[3]–257,000[2] 479 BC
Battle of Chaeronea Wars of Alexander the Great 20,000 or more[4] 338 BC
Battle of the Granicus Wars of Alexander the Great 15,000 or more[4] 334 BC
Battle of Issus Wars of Alexander the Great 50,450[5] 333 BC
Battle of Gaugamela Wars of Alexander the Great 53,500[6] 331 BC
Battle of the Hydaspes Wars of Alexander the Great 23,310[6] 326 BC
Battle of Sentinum Third Samnite War 33,500[7] 295 BC
Battle of Heraclea Pyrrhic War 11,000–26,000[7] 280 BC
Battle of Kalinga KalingaMaurya Empire 150,000[8]–200,000[9][10] (including civilians) 262 BC
Battle of Changping Qin’s wars of unification 700,000 (doubtful, according to ancient sources) 260 BC
Battle of the Trebia Second Punic War 35,000[11] 218 BC
Battle of Lake Trasimene Second Punic War Approximately 30,000[11] 217 BC
Battle of Cannae Second Punic War 56,000[12]–92,000 or more[13] 216 BC
Battle of the Metaurus Second Punic War 12,000[14] 207 BC
Battle of Zama Second Punic War 21,500[14] 202 BC
Battle of Magnesia Roman–Syrian War 53,350[15] 190 BC
Battle of Pydna Third Macedonian War 21,000[15] 168 BC
Battle of Arausio Germanic Wars (Cimbrian War) 84,000[16][17][18] 105 BC
Battle of Carrhae Roman–Persian Wars 24,000[19] 53 BC
Battle of Pharsalus Caesar’s Civil War 17,000[20] 48 BC
Battle of Teutoburg Forest Roman–Germanic wars 20,000[21] 9 AD
Battle of Watling Street Iceni Revolt 80,400[22] 61 AD
Battle of Mons Graupius Roman conquest of Britain 10,360[23] 84 AD
Battle of Red Cliffs Three Kingdoms Approximately 100,000[24] 208
Battle of Adrianople Gothic War 40,000 or more[25] 378
Battle of Fei River Wu Hu Era 150,000 or more [26] 383
Battle of the Catalaunian Plains Hunnic Invasion 165,000[27] 451
Battle of Salsu Goguryeo–Sui Wars 302,300[28] 612
Battle of al-Qādisiyyah Muslim conquest of Persia 31,000[29] 636
Battle of Muzayyah Muslim conquest of Persia 10,000 633
Battle of Ullais Muslim conquest of Persia 35,000[30] 633
Battle of River Muslim conquest of Persia more than 15,000[31] 633
Battle of Walaja Muslim conquest of Persia 22,000[32] 636
Battle of Saniyy Muslim conquest of Persia 5,000 633
Battle of Nahāvand Muslim conquest of Persia 28,500[33] 642
Battle of Yarmouk Byzantine–Arab Wars 70,000 circa[34] 636
Battle of Didgori Georgian-Seljuk wars Approximately 210,000 [35][not in citation given] 1121
Battle of Hattin Ayyubid–Crusader War 17,000–20,000[36] 1187
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa Reconquista Approximately 60,000[37] 1212
Battle of the Kalka River Mongol invasion of Rus’ 20,000 or more[38] 1223
Battle of Liegnitz Mongol invasion of Poland Approximately 30,000[39] 1241
Battle of Mohi Mongol invasion of Europe Approximately 15,000[40] 1241
Siege of Baghdad (1258) Mongol conquests 2,100,000+ including civilians[41] 1258
Battle of Yamen Mongol conquest of the Song Dynasty Approximately 100,000 1279
Battle of Bannockburn First War of Scottish Independence Approximately 19,000[42] 1314
Battle of Kulikovo List of Tatar and Mongol raids against Rus’ Approximately 136,000 1380
Battle of the Terek River Tokhtamysh–Timur war Approximately 100,000[43] 1395
Conquest of Delhi Timur’s Indian campaign Approximately 100,000[44][45] 1398
Battle of Ankara Ottoman–Timur War 15,000 or more[46] 1402
Battle of Grunwald Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War Approximately 13,000[47] 1410
Tumu Crisis Ming–Mongol War 200,000 or more[citation needed] 1449
Battle of Towton Wars of the Roses 28,000[48] 1461
Battle of Kabul Campaigns of Babur 20,000 or more[49] 1504
Battle of Ravenna War of the League of Cambrai 13,500[50] 1512
Battle of Marignano War of the League of Cambrai 11,000–15,000[51] 1515
Battle of Ridaniya Ottoman wars in the Near East 13,000[52] 1517
First Battle of Panipat Mughal Conquest 20,000–50,000[53] 1526
Battle of Mohács Ottoman–Hungarian Wars Probably 30,000[54] 1526
Battle of Ghaghra Mughal Conquest Approximately 13,000[55] 1529
Battle of Lepanto Ottoman-Venetian Wars 22,566–27,566[56] 1571
Battle of Sekigahara Sengoku Period 60,000 or less[57] 1600
First Battle of Breitenfeld Thirty Years’ War 20,000 or more[58] 1631
Battle of Lützen Thirty Years’ War 11,000–14,000[58] 1632
Battle of Nördlingen Thirty Years’ War 17,000[59] 1634
Battle of the Downs Eighty Years’ War 15,000 or more[60] 1639
Battle of Samugarh Mughal Conquest 32,000[60] 1658
Battle of Khajwa Mughal Conquest 20,000[60] 1659
Battle of Vienna Ottoman–Habsburg wars 19,500[61] 1683
Battle of Bijapur Mughal Conquest 17,000[62] 1686
Battle of Landen War of the Grand Alliance 28,000[62] 1693
Battle of Zenta Ottoman–Habsburg wars 30,300[63] 1697
Battle of Jinji Mughal Conquest 16,000[62] 1698
Battle of Blenheim War of the Spanish Succession 32,000[62] 1704
Battle of Ramillies War of the Spanish Succession 15,600[64] 1706
Battle of Malplaquet War of the Spanish Succession 95,000[64] 1709
Battle of Fontenoy War of the Austrian Succession 14,000[65] 1745
Battle of Leuthen Seven Years’ War 11,800[66] 1757
Battle of Zorndorf Seven Years’ War 30,000[citation needed] 1758
Third Battle of Panipat Marathas and Afghans Approximately 100,000; up to 200,000 (including civilian camp followers)[67][68] 1761
Battle of Arcole War of the First Coalition 11,000[69] 1796
Battle of Marengo War of the Second Coalition 16,400[70] 1800
Ulm Campaign War of the Third Coalition 11,500[70] 1805
Battle of Austerlitz War of the Third Coalition 24,300[71] 1805
Battle of Jena-Auerstedt War of the Fourth Coalition 52,000 including prisoners later killed[72] 1806
Battle of Eylau War of the Fourth Coalition 40,000[72] 1807
Battle of Wagram War of the Fifth Coalition 77,000[72]–79,000[73] 1809
Battle of Talavera Peninsular War 13,900[74] 1809
Battle of Salamanca Peninsular War 18,800[75] 1812
Battle of Borodino French Invasion of Russia 74,000[76] 1812
Battle of Berezina French Invasion of Russia 60,000[76] 1812
Battle of Vitoria Peninsular War 13,000[75] 1813
Battle of Leipzig War of the Sixth Coalition 124,000[77] 1813
Battle of Ligny Hundred Days 28,000[78] 1815
Battle of Waterloo Hundred Days 47,000 or more (not including prisoners and missing)[79][80] 1815
Battle of Blood River Zulu purge of Voortrekkers 3,000 or more to Zulu side only (not including wounded)[81] 1838
Battle of Inkerman Crimean War 15,857[82] 1854
Battle of Shiloh American Civil War 24,000[83] 1862
Battle of Antietam American Civil War 23,000[84]–26,193[85] 1862
Battle of Fredericksburg American Civil War 17,300[84]–17,962[86] 1862
Battle of Gettysburg American Civil War 51,000[87][88] 1863
Battle of Chickamauga American Civil War Approximately 34,000[89] 1863
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House American Civil War Approximately 30,000[90] 1864
Battle of Königgrätz Austro–Prussian War 47,500[91] 1866
Battle of Tuyutí Paraguayan War 7,000–16,000[92] 1866
Battle of Mars-la-Tour/Battle of Gravelotte Franco–Prussian War 34,000[91] 1870
Battle of Sedan Franco–Prussian War 26,000[93] 1870
Battle of Adowa First Italo–Ethiopian War 17,300[94] 1896
Battle of Binakayan-Dalahican Philippine Revolutionary War 2,000-15,000[95] 1896
Battle of Omdurman Mahdist War 20,430[96] 1898
Battle of Mons/Battle of Le Cateau World War I 18,000[97] 1914
Battle of Sakarya Greco–Turkish War of 1919–22 61,000[98][99] 1921

Sieges and urban combat[edit]

This list includes sieges, as well as modern battles that were fought primarily in urban areas. Major military operations that included city fighting are listed below. Sieges and urban combat often include heavy civilian casualties, which are included in this list.

This list is sortable. Click the box next to a column heading to sort by that criterion.

Siege Conflict Casualties Year
Siege of Sidon Phoenician Rebellion Against Persia Over 40,000[100] 343 BC
Siege of Jerusalem First Jewish–Roman War ~60,000 to 1,100,000[101] 70
Siege of Jerusalem Roman–Persian Wars ~70,000 to 90,000[102] 614
Siege of Constantinople Byzantine–Arab Wars 130,000–170,000[34] 717–718
Siege of Jerusalem First Crusade ~40,000[103] 1099
Siege of Baghdad Mongol invasions 80,000[104] 1258
Siege of Tenochtitlan Spanish Conquest of Mexico ~100,000 to 240,000[105][106] 1521
Siege of Rhodes Ottoman wars in Europe 55,200[52] 1522
Siege of Malta Ottoman wars in Europe 29,000[63]–40,000[107] 1565
Siege of La Rochelle French Wars of Religion Over 18,600[60] 1627–28
Sack of Magdeburg Thirty Years’ War 20,000[108]–25,000+[109] 1630
Second Siege of Zaragoza Peninsular War 64,000[110] 1808-09
Siege of Vicksburg American Civil War 19,000[110] 1863
Siege of Petersburg American Civil War 70,000[111] 1864–65
Siege of Plevna Russo–Turkish War 37,000[112] 1877
Siege of Port Arthur Russo–Japanese War 100,000[113] 1904–05
Siege of Adrianople First Balkan War 93,282, including captured[114] 1912–13
Siege of Odessa World War II 133,813[115] 1941
Battle of Stalingrad World War II 1,250,000[116]–1,798,619[117] 1942–43
Siege of Leningrad World War II 1,117,000[118][119] – 4,500,000[120] 1941–44
Warsaw Uprising World War II 200,000+ killed[121] 1944
Siege of Budapest World War II 422,000[122] 1944–45
Battle of Berlin World War II 1,298,745[123][124] 1945
Siege of Changchun Chinese Civil War 425,000[125] 1948[126]
Battle of Kiev World War II 700,544[127] 1941
Nanking Massacre World War II 50,000-300,000 [128] 1937-38
Siege of Sarajevo Bosnian War 12,000 killed, with 50,000 wounded[129][130] 1992–96

 

Major operations[edit]

This list includes major operations and prolonged battles or operations fought over a large area or for a long time. The duration of some operations, like the Battle of Moscow, are disputed so numbers found in various sources may differ for that reason alone.

Operation Conflict Casualties Year
Six Days Campaign War of the Sixth Coalition 80,000[77] 1814
Peninsula Campaign American Civil War 36,463[131] 1862
Battle of Chancellorsville American Civil War 30,000[132]–30,500[84] 1863
Overland Campaign American Civil War 87,000[133]–92,000[110] 1864
Appomattox Campaign American Civil War 16,500[111] 1865
Battle of Mukden Russo–Japanese War 160,000[134] 1905
Battle of Lule Burgas First Balkan War 42,162+[135] 1912
First Battle of Çatalca First Balkan War 22,000[136] 1912
Battle of Bregalnica Second Balkan War 36,620[114] 1913
Rape of Belgium World War I 32,000[97] 1914
Battle of Tannenberg World War I 145,000[137]–160,000[138] 1914
First Battle of the Marne World War I 513,000[139] 1914
First Battle of Ypres World War I 210,000[140] 1914
Battle of Łódź World War I 130,000[141] 1914
Second Battle of Ypres World War I 104,208[142]–107,000[143] 1915
Gallipoli Campaign World War I 503,000[142]–552,000[144] 1915
Second Battle of Artois World War I 186,000[142] 1915
Second Battle of ChampagneThird Battle of Artois World War I 75,000[143]–440,000[142] 1915
Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive World War I 300,000[142] 1915
Serbian Campaign (1915) World War I 331,000, including prisoners[145] 1915
Battle of Verdun World War I 755,000[146]–976,000[142] 1916
Battle of Asiago World War I 250,000[142] 1916
Brusilov Offensive World War I 1,600,000[142] 1916
Battle of the Somme World War I 1,120,000[147]–1,215,000[142] 1916
Monastir Offensive World War I 111,000[148] 1916
Romanian Campaign World War I 240,000[142][dubious ] 1916–1917
Nivelle Offensive World War I 354,000[149] 1917
Battle of Messines World War I 42,000[150][151] 1917
Tenth Battle of the Isonzo World War I 200,000[152] 1917
Third Battle of Ypres World War I Over 585,000[153] 1917
Battle of Caporetto World War I 60,000[154] 1917
Battle of Cambrai World War I 95,000[154] 1917
Spring Offensive World War I 900,000[155] 1918
Second Battle of the Marne World War I 288,000[155] 1918
Battle of Warsaw Polish–Soviet War About 130,000, not including prisoners[156] 1920
Battle of Guadalajara Spanish Civil War 12,000[157] 1937
Battle of Teruel Spanish Civil War 110,000, including prisoners[158] 1937–38
Battle of the Ebro Spanish Civil War 106,500[158] 1938
Battle of Khalkhin Gol Soviet-Japanese Border Wars 42,000[159] 1939
Invasion of Poland World War II 310,000[160] 1939
Winter War World War II 152,000[160]–225,000[161] 1939–40
Operation Weserübung World War II 12,800[160] 1940
Battle of France World War II 469,000[162] 1940
Greco-Italian War World War II 100,000 dead[163] 1940–41
Battle of Greece World War II 46,295 dead[164] 1941
Battle of Crete World War II 16,007 dead [165] 1941
Operation Barbarossa World War II 1,400,000[166]–5,000,000[167] 1941
Battle of Moscow World War II 1,000,000[166] 1941
Battle of Hong Kong World War II 18,000 including prisoners[168] 1941
Battle of Malaya/Battle of Singapore World War II 143,800, and 60,000 prisoners[169] 1941–42
Battle of Bataan/Battle of Corregidor World War II 30,000 killed[170] 1942
Battle of the Kerch Peninsula World War II Over 176,000[171] 1942
Second Battle of Kharkov World War II 300,000[171] 1942
Battle of Gazala World War II 148,000[172] 1942
Guadalcanal Campaign World War II 31,100[173] 1942–43
Second Battle of El Alamein World War II 39,400[172]–82,500[174] 1942
Operation Iskra World War II 129,332[175] 1943
Guadalcanal Campaign World War II 29,100 dead[176] 1942–43
Battle of Kursk World War II 257,125[177]–388,000[178] 1943
Dnieper Campaign World War II 1,582,000 (lowest est.) – 2,480,000 (highest est.) 1943
Allied invasion of Sicily World War II At least 36,000 killed, and over 100,000 Italian POWs[179] 1943
Allied invasion of Italy World War II 17,092 killed[180] 1943
Bougainville Campaign World War II 21,929 killed, and 23,571 Japanese prisoners[181] 1943–45
Battle of Monte Cassino World War II 185,000[182] 1944
Battle of Narva World War II 550,000 all causes[183] 1944
Operation Shingle World War II 52,200 killed[184] 1944
Normandy Landings World War II 14,000 – 19,000[185] 1944
First Jassy–Kishinev Offensive World War II 195,000[186] 1944
Battle of Saipan World War II 43,500 killed, including mass suicides[187] 1944
Operation Bagration World War II 528,000[122]–1,430,000[188] 1944
Falaise Pocket World War II 140,000[189] 1944
Second Jassy–Kishinev Offensive World War II 485,424, including prisoners[190][191] 1944
Operation Market Garden World War II 27,200[192] 1944
Battle of Hürtgen Forest World War II 63,000[193] 1944–45
Battle of Leyte Gulf World War II 12,000 killed[194] 1944
Battle of the Bulge World War II 186,369[195] 1944–45
Battle of Luzon World War II 332,330–345,330, including sick[196] 1945
Battle of the Rhineland World War II 82,000 and 250,000 prisoners[197] 1945
Battle of Iwo Jima World War II 44,821[198]–48,700[199] 1945
Battle of Okinawa World War II 113,920[200]–158,400[201] 1945
Arab–Israeli War Arab–Israeli conflict 12,000–19,000[202] 1948–49
Liaoshen Campaign Chinese Civil War 542,000, including captured[203] 1948
Huaihai Campaign Chinese Civil War 689,000, including captured[204] 1948
Pingjin Campaign Chinese Civil War 560,000, including captured[205] 1948–49
Battle of Inchon Korean War 17,429[206] 1950
Invasion of North Korea Korean War 51,700[207] 1950
Battle of Dien Bien Phu First Indochina War 31,500, not including prisoners[208] 1954
Tet Offensive Vietnam War 65,000[209] 1968
Operation OAU Nigerian Civil War 30,000[209] 1968
Easter Offensive Vietnam War 150,000[209] 1972
Yom Kippur War Arab–Israeli conflict 21,688, not including prisoners[210] 1973
Falklands War Falklands War 14,095, including prisoners[211] 1982
1982 Lebanon War Israeli–Lebanese conflict 18,500[210] 1982–85
Gulf War Gulf War 25,678[211] 1991
Invasion of Iraq Iraq War 34,543[212] 2003

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 17
  2. Jump up to:a b Herodotus (440 BC).Histories.
  3. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 23
  4. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 26
  5. Jump up^ Grant, p. 28
  6. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 27
  7. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 37
  8. Jump up^ Grant, p. 56
  9. Jump up^ Ashoka the Great (r. 272–231 BC), Edicts of AshokaMajor Rock Edict 13.
  10. Jump up^ Radhakumud Mookerji (1988).Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-0405-8.
  11. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 39
  12. Jump up^ Grant, p. 40
  13. Jump up^ Leonard Cottrell (1965).Enemy of Rome. Evans Bros.ISBN 0-237-44320-1.
  14. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 41
  15. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 31
  16. Jump up^ Valerius Antias (1st century BC). Manubiae.
  17. Jump up^ Albert A. Howard (1906). “Valerius Antias and Livy”,Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 17, p. 161–182.
  18. Jump up^ Canon Rawlinson (1877). “On the Ethnography of the Cimbri”,The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 6, p. 150–158.
  19. Jump up^ Grant, p. 43
  20. Jump up^ Grant, p. 47
  21. Jump up^ Wells, Peter S. The Battle that stopped Rome. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2003, p. 187. ISBN 0-393-32643-8.
  22. Jump up^http://www.search.com/reference/Battle_of_Watling_Street
  23. Jump up^ Grant, p. 49
  24. Jump up^ Records of Three Kingdoms,
  25. Jump up^ Grant, p. 51
  26. Jump up^ Book of Jin,
  27. Jump up^ Jordanes (22 April 1997). “The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, chapter XLI”. Translated byCharles C. Mierow.
  28. Jump up^ Book of Sui, Vol. 60.
  29. Jump up^ The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History By Ibn Khaldūn, Franz Rosenthal, N. J.. Dawood pg, 12.
  30. Jump up^ “The Sword of Allah”, Chapter 22, by Lieutenant-General Agha Ibrahim Akram, Nat. Publishing. House, Rawalpindi (1970) ISBN 978-0-7101-0104-4.
  31. Jump up^ A.I.Akram, Sword of Allah, Khalid ibn Walid, ch.13th, pg.137
  32. Jump up^ A. I. Akram (1970). The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin al-Waleed, His Life and Campaigns. National Publishing House, Rawalpindi. ISBN 0-7101-0104-X.
  33. Jump up^http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/arab-ii
  34. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 74
  35. Jump up^ [1]
  36. Jump up^ Jonathan Riley-Smith, the Crusades, 2005, p. 109
  37. Jump up^ Grant, p. 89
  38. Jump up^ Jackson, Peter (2005). The Mongols and the West, 1221–1410. Pearson Education Limited.
  39. Jump up^ Grant, p. 92
  40. Jump up^ Carey, Brian Todd, p. 124
  41. Jump up^ Saunders, J.J. 2001. The History of the Mongol Conquests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  42. Jump up^ Grant, p. 118
  43. Jump up^ Grant, p. 94
  44. Jump up^ B.F. Manz, “Tīmūr Lang”, inEncyclopaedia of Islam.
  45. Jump up^ Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography or Memoirs of Emperor Tímúr (Taimur the lame). Page 389. 1. Online copy2. Online copy from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877.
  46. Jump up^ Grant, p. 95
  47. Jump up^ Grant, p. 121
  48. Jump up^ The Military Campaigns of the Wars of the Roses Philip A. Haigh (Chap. 8)
  49. Jump up^ David, Saul: War, 2009
  50. Jump up^ Grant, p. 144
  51. Jump up^ Grant, p. 145
  52. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 129
  53. Jump up^ Grant, p. 136
  54. Jump up^ Grant, p. 132
  55. Jump up^ A History of India Under the Two First Sovereigns of the House of Taimur, Báber and Humáyun By William Erskine Published by Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1854
  56. Jump up^ Grant, p. 134
  57. Jump up^ Grant, p. 175
  58. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 151
  59. Jump up^ Grant, p. 152
  60. Jump up to:a b c dhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/520843/Battle-of-Samugarh
  61. Jump up^ Tucker, Spencer (2010).Battles That Changed History: An Encyclopedia of World Conflict. ABC-CLIO. p. 216.ISBN 978-1-59884-429-0.
  62. Jump up to:a b c dhttp://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Bijapur
  63. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 133
  64. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 160
  65. Jump up^ Grant, p. 161
  66. Jump up^ Grant, p. 186
  67. Jump up^ Duff, ch. V, p. 110
  68. Jump up^ Rawlinson, p. 40
  69. Jump up^ Grant, p. 199
  70. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 201
  71. Jump up^ Grant, p. 202
  72. Jump up to:a b c Grant, p. 205
  73. Jump up^ Castle, I. Aspern/Wagram (1809), Osprey (1990)
  74. Jump up^ Grant, p. 208
  75. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 209
  76. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 212
  77. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 213
  78. Jump up^ Grant, p. 214
  79. Jump up^ Barbero, pp 419–420 Barbero, Alessandro (2005). The Battle: A New History of Waterloo. Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-84354-310-9
  80. Jump up^ Grant, p. 215
  81. Jump up^ NOD, pp 1-5 Prof AWG Raath (2013).
  82. Jump up^ Grant, p. 260
  83. Jump up^ Grant, p. 226
  84. Jump up to:a b c Grant, p. 227
  85. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 36
  86. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 38
  87. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 46
  88. Jump up^ Grant, p. 228
  89. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 48
  90. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 52
  91. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 258
  92. Jump up^ The Paraguayan War by William Henry Koebel
  93. Jump up^ Grant, p. 259
  94. Jump up^ Grant, p. 240
  95. Jump up^ Davis, George W. (1903),Annual report of Major General George W. Davis, United States Army commanding Division of the Philippines from October 1, 1902 to July 26, 1903, Manila, P.I.Archived onInternet Archive
  96. Jump up^ Grant, p. 241
  97. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 270
  98. Jump up^ Zeki Sarıhan: Kurtuluş Savaşı günlüğü: açıklamalı kronoloji. Sakarya savaşı’ndan Lozan’ın açılışına (23 Ağustos 1921-20 Kasım 1922) (engl.:Diary of the independence war: commented chronology. From battle of Sakarya to the opening of Lausanne (23 August 1921–20 November 1922)), Türk Tarih Kurumu yayınları (publishing house), 1996, ISBN 975-16-0517-2, page 62. (Turkish)
  99. Jump up^ Σαγγάριος 1921, Η επική μάχη που σφράγησε την τύχη του Μικρασιατικού Ελληνισμού, Εκδόσεις Περισκόπιο, Ιούλιος 2008, ISBN 978-960-6740-45-9, page 32 (in Greek)
  100. Jump up^ “Artaxerxes III Ochus ( 358 BC to 338 BC )”. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  101. Jump up^ JosephusThe Wars of the Jews VI.9.3
  102. Jump up^ Antiochus Strategos, The Capture of Jerusalem by the Persians in 614 ADF. C. Conybeare, English Historical Review 25 (1910) pp. 502–517.
  103. Jump up^ Paul Tobinhttp://web.archive.org/web/20091027110712/http://geocities.com/paulntobin/crusades.html
  104. Jump up^ Grant, p. 93
  105. Jump up^ Mann, p. 143
  106. Jump up^ Hassig
  107. Jump up^ Arnold Cassola, The 1565 Ottoman Malta Campaign Register, (Publishers Enterprise Group: Malta, 1998), p. 111.
  108. Jump up^ Grant, p. 150
  109. Jump up^ Firoozi, Edith, and Ira N. Klein. Universal History of the World: The Age of Great Kings.Vol. 9. New York: Golden Press, 1966. pp. 738–739.
  110. Jump up to:a b c Grant, p. 230
  111. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 231
  112. Jump up^ Grant, p. 263
  113. Jump up^ Grant, p. 252
  114. Jump up to:a b Hall, p. 112
  115. Jump up^ Glantz (1995), p. 293
  116. Jump up^ Grant, p. 308
  117. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 528
  118. Jump up^ Сведения городской комиссии по установлению и расследованию злодеяний немецко-фашистских захватчиков и их сообщников о числе погибшего в Ленинграде населения ЦГА СПб, Ф.8357. Оп.6. Д. 1108 Л. 46–47
  119. Jump up^ Harrison Evans Salisbury(1969). The 900 Days: The Siege of Leningrad. Da Capo Press. p. 590.
  120. Jump up^ Glantz, David (2001), The Siege of Leningrad 1941–44: 900 Days of Terror, Zenith Press, Osceola, WI, ISBN 0-7603-0941-8. p. 220
  121. Jump up^ World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: FAQ
  122. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 318
  123. Jump up^ Glantz, p. 271
  124. Jump up^ Krivosheev, pp. 219–220
  125. Jump up^ Chang, Jung; Halliday, Jon. 2006. Mao: The Unknown Story. London: Vintage Books. p383.
  126. Jump up^ ANDREW JACOBS (2009-10-02). “China Is Wordless on Traumas of Communists’ Rise”. New York Times. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  127. Jump up^ Glantz (1995), p. 293
  128. Jump up^ Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi, ed. (2008). The Nanking Atrocity, 1937-38: Complicating the Picture. Berghahn Books. p. 362. ISBN 1845451805.
  129. Jump up^ [2]
  130. Jump up^ “From Sarajevo to Hollywood: Life under siege”The Independent (London). 1 September 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  131. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 33
  132. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 42
  133. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 53
  134. Jump up^ Grant, p. 253
  135. Jump up^ Hall, p. 31
  136. Jump up^ Hall, p. 36
  137. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 99
  138. Jump up^ Grant, p. 271
  139. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 100
  140. Jump up^ Grant, p. 272
  141. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 110
  142. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j Brewer, p. 142
  143. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 273
  144. Jump up^ Grant, p. 282
  145. Jump up^ Spencer Tucker, “Encyclopedia of World War I”(2005) pg 1077, ISBN 1851094202
  146. Jump up^ Grant, p. 276
  147. Jump up^ Grant, p. 279
  148. Jump up^ Tucker, 810
  149. Jump up^ Grant, p. 277
  150. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 150
  151. Jump up^ Grant, p. 280
  152. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 151
  153. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 152
  154. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 281
  155. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 286
  156. Jump up^ Grant, p. 292
  157. Jump up^ Grant, p. 294
  158. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 295
  159. Jump up^ Grant, p. 293
  160. Jump up to:a b c Grant, p. 298
  161. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 437
  162. Jump up^ Grant, p. 299
  163. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 462
  164. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 474
  165. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 479
  166. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 306
  167. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 480
  168. Jump up^ Grant, p. 323
  169. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 502
  170. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 499
  171. Jump up to:a b Erickson, p. 90
  172. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 302
  173. Jump up^ Grant, p. 326
  174. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 531
  175. Jump up^ Erickson, p. 138
  176. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 522
  177. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 547
  178. Jump up^ Grant, p. 307
  179. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 550
  180. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 555
  181. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 560
  182. Jump up^ Grant, p. 303
  183. Jump up^ Mart Laar (2006). Sinimäed 1944: II maailmasõja lahingud Kirde-Eestis (Sinimäed Hills 1944: Battles of World War II in Northeast Estonia) (in Estonian). Tallinn: Varrak.
  184. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 567
  185. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 580
  186. Jump up^ Glantz, p. 381
  187. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 587
  188. Jump up^ Brewer, p. 306
  189. Jump up^ Grant, p. 316
  190. Jump up^ Pat McTaggart: Red Storm in Romania
  191. Jump up^ KrivosheevSoviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth CenturyISBN 1-85367-280-7, Greenhill Books, 1997; (chapter on the Jassy-Kishinev operation in Russian)
  192. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 592
  193. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 594
  194. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 596
  195. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 600
  196. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 606
  197. Jump up^ Grant, p. 317
  198. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 608
  199. Jump up^ Grant, p. 328
  200. Jump up^ Wagner, p. 612
  201. Jump up^ Grant, p. 329
  202. Jump up^ Grant, p. 344
  203. Jump up^ Liaoning-Shenyang Campaign
  204. Jump up^ Yu and Huaihai Campaign, p.5
  205. Jump up^ Pingjin rewrite history? ? Tianjin Campaign
  206. Jump up^ Grant, p. 334
  207. Jump up^ Grant, p. 335
  208. Jump up^ Grant, p. 338
  209. Jump up to:a b c Grant, p. 341
  210. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 345
  211. Jump up to:a b Grant, p. 351
  212. Jump up^ Grant, p. 353

References[edit]

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s