District of Columbia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

District of Columbia — Gun Facts, Figures and the Law

For US national statistics, federal law, inter-country comparisons and international agreements, see the United States country page

StockpilesGun Numbers

Civilian Guns

Percentage of Adults Living in a Home With a Gun

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the fraction of adults living in a household with a firearm is reported to be

2002: 5.21
2001: 3.82

Proportion of Households with Firearms

In the District of Columbia, the percentage of households with one or more guns is reported to be 2004: 20.133

ImpactsDeath and Injury

Total Number of Gun Deaths

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual deaths resulting from firearms total

2010: 994
2009: 111
2008: 137
2007: 144
2006: 134
2005: 154
2004: 143
2003: 167
2002: 195
2001: 169
2000: 149
1999: 163

Rate of All Gun Deaths per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of all gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 16.454
2009: 18.74
2008: 23.61
2007: 25.07
2006: 23.48
2005: 27.15
2004: 25.19
2003: 29.38
2002: 34.02
2001: 29.42
2000: 26.05
1999: 28.59

Homicides (any method)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual homicides by any means total

2010: 1194
2009: 135
2008: 164
2007: 159
2006: 150
2005: 180
2004: 174
2003: 194
2002: 229
2001: 197
2000: 184
1999: 186

Rate of Homicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of homicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2010: 19.784
2009: 22.80
2008: 28.26
2007: 27.68
2006: 26.28
2005: 31.74
2004: 30.65
2003: 34.12
2002: 39.95
2001: 34.29
2000: 32.16
1999: 32.62

Gun Homicides

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual firearm homicides total

2010: 844
2009: 104
2008: 122
2007: 129
2006: 120
2005: 142
2004: 137
2003: 156
2002: 176
2001: 141
2000: 138
1999: 145

Rate of Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of firearm homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 13.964
2009: 17.56
2008: 21.03
2007: 22.46
2006: 21.03
2005: 25.04
2004: 24.13
2003: 27.44
2002: 30.71
2001: 24.54
2000: 24.12
1999: 25.43

Handgun Homicides

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),5 annual handgun homicides total

2011: 376 7
2010: 32
2009: 80
1997: 7

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),8 the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 5.989
2010: 5.29
2009: 13.51
1997: 1.23

Handgun Homicides (CDC)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),5 annual handgun homicides total

2010: 0 Suppressed10 7
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 0 Suppressed
2007: 0 Suppressed
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 0 Suppressed
2002: 0 Suppressed
2001: 0 Suppressed
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 0 Suppressed

Rate of Handgun Homicide per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),8 the annual rate of handgun homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10 7
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Long Gun Homicides

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),11 annual long gun homicides total

2011: 16
2010: 0
2009: 2
1997: 1

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),12 the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2011: 0.169
2010: 0.00
2009: 0.34
1997: 0.18

Long Gun Homicides (CDC)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),11 annual long gun homicides total

2010: 0 Suppressed10 7
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 0 Suppressed
2007: 0 Suppressed
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 0 Suppressed
2002: 0 Suppressed
2001: 0 Suppressed
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 0 Suppressed

Rate of Long Gun Homicide per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),12 the annual rate of long gun homicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10 7
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Gun Homicides (Other)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),13 annual firearm homicides (Other) total

2011: 396
2010: 67
2009: 31
1997: 234

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),14 the annual rate of firearm homicide (Other) per 100,000 population is

2011: 6.309
2010: 11.07
2009: 5.23
1997: 41.22

Gun Homicides (Other) (CDC)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),13 annual firearm homicides (Other) total

2010: 8210 7
2009: 104
2008: 120
2007: 128
2006: 118
2005: 137
2004: 136
2003: 152
2002: 172
2001: 137
2000: 134
1999: 140

Rate of Gun Homicide (Other) per 100,000 People (CDC)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, according to figures from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),14 the annual rate of firearm homicide (Other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 13.6310 7
2009: 17.56
2008: 20.68
2007: 22.28
2006: 20.68
2005: 24.16
2004: 23.95
2003: 26.74
2002: 30.01
2001: 23.85
2000: 23.42
1999: 24.55

Suicides (any method)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual suicides by any means total

2010: 414
2009: 29
2008: 43
2007: 36
2006: 30
2005: 33
2004: 33
2003: 36
2002: 31
2001: 40
2000: 23
1999: 30

Rate of Suicide per 100,000 People (any method)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of suicide by any means per 100,000 population is

2010: 6.814
2009: 4.90
2008: 7.41
2007: 6.27
2006: 5.26
2005: 5.82
2004: 5.81
2003: 6.33
2002: 5.41
2001: 6.96
2000: 4.02
1999: 5.26

Gun Suicides

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual firearm suicides total

2010: 134
2008: 12
2007: 10
2006: 10
2005: 10
2004: 5
2003: 10
2002: 13
2001: 21
2000: 7
1999: 13

Rate of Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of firearm suicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 2.164
2008: 2.07
2007: 1.74
2006: 1.75
2005: 1.76
2004: 0.88
2003: 1.76
2002: 2.27
2001: 3.66
2000: 1.22
1999: 2.28

Handgun Suicides

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual handgun suicides total

2010: 0 Suppressed10
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 0 Suppressed
2007: 0 Suppressed
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 0 Suppressed
2002: 0 Suppressed
2001: 0 Suppressed
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 0 Suppressed

Rate of Handgun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of handgun suicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Long Gun Suicides

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the number of long gun suicides is

2010: 0 Suppressed10
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 0 Suppressed
2007: 0 Suppressed
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 0 Suppressed
2002: 0 Suppressed
2001: 0 Suppressed
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 0 Suppressed

Rate of Long Gun Suicide per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of long gun suicide per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Gun Suicides (Other)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual gun suicides (other) total

2010: 1110
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 11
2007: 10
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 10
2002: 10
2001: 19
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 10

Rate of Gun Suicide (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of gun suicide (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Unintentional Gun Deaths

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual unintentional shooting deaths total

2007: 14
2006: 3
2005: 1
2004: 1
2003: 1
2002: 4
2001: 4
2000: 3
1999: 1

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death per 100,000 population is

2007: 0.174
2006: 0.53
2005: 0.18
2004: 0.18
2003: 0.18
2002: 0.70
2001: 0.70
2000: 0.52
1999: 0.18

Unintentional Handgun Deaths

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual unintentional shooting deaths by handgun total

2010: 0 Suppressed10
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 0 Suppressed
2007: 0 Suppressed
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 0 Suppressed
2002: 0 Suppressed
2001: 0 Suppressed
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 0 Suppressed

Rate of Unintentional Handgun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by handgun per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Unintentional Long Gun Deaths

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual unintentional shooting deaths by long gun total

2010: 0 Suppressed10
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 0 Suppressed
2007: 0 Suppressed
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 0 Suppressed
2002: 0 Suppressed
2001: 0 Suppressed
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 0 Suppressed

Rate of Unintentional Long Gun Death per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by long gun per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Unintentional Gun Deaths (Other)

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual unintentional shooting deaths by firearm (other) total

2010: 0 Suppressed10
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 0 Suppressed
2007: 0 Suppressed
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 0 Suppressed
2002: 0 Suppressed
2001: 0 Suppressed
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 0 Suppressed

Rate of Unintentional Gun Death (Other) per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of unintentional shooting death by firearm (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual shooting deaths in which the cause remains undecided total

2007: 14
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 0
2002: 2
2001: 0
2000: 0
1999: 0

Rate of Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of unknown-cause shooting deaths per 100,000 population is

2007: 0.174
2006: 0.00
2005: 0.00
2004: 0.00
2003: 0.00
2002: 0.35
2001: 0.00
2000: 0.00
1999: 0.00

Handgun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual deaths by handgun in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 0 Suppressed10
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 0 Suppressed
2007: 0 Suppressed
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 0 Suppressed
2002: 0 Suppressed
2001: 0 Suppressed
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 0 Suppressed

Rate of Handgun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of unknown-cause handgun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Long Gun Deaths from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual deaths by long gun in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 0 Suppressed10
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 0 Suppressed
2007: 0 Suppressed
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 0 Suppressed
2002: 0 Suppressed
2001: 0 Suppressed
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 0 Suppressed

Rate of Long Gun Death from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of unknown-cause long gun deaths per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Gun Deaths (Other) from Undetermined Cause

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual deaths by firearm (other) in which the cause remains undecided total

2010: 0 Suppressed10
2009: 0 Suppressed
2008: 0 Suppressed
2007: 0 Suppressed
2006: 0 Suppressed
2005: 0 Suppressed
2004: 0 Suppressed
2003: 0 Suppressed
2002: 0 Suppressed
2001: 0 Suppressed
2000: 0 Suppressed
1999: 0 Suppressed

Rate of Gun Death (Other) from Undetermined Cause per 100,000 People

ChartIn the District of Columbia, the annual rate of unknown-cause gun deaths (other) per 100,000 population is

2010: 0.00 Unreliable10
2009: 0.00 Unreliable
2008: 0.00 Unreliable
2007: 0.00 Unreliable
2006: 0.00 Unreliable
2005: 0.00 Unreliable
2004: 0.00 Unreliable
2003: 0.00 Unreliable
2002: 0.00 Unreliable
2001: 0.00 Unreliable
2000: 0.00 Unreliable
1999: 0.00 Unreliable

Justifiable Gun Homicides

ChartIn the District of Columbia, annual legal-intervention gun homicides total

2011: 1015
2010: 0
2009: 18
2008: 016
2007: 0
2006: 0
2005: 0
2004: 0
2003: 0
2002: 0
2001: 017
2000: 0
1999: 0
1998: 0
1997: 0
1996: 0
1995: 17

TransfersGun Trade and Trafficking

Origin of Crime Guns

Suppliers of Crime Guns to Other US States (Rate)

When crime guns seized in the United States were traced, interstate gun traffickers had sourced their weapons from the District of Columbia at a rate of 2.218 per 100,000 inhabitants

Suppliers of Crime Guns to Other US States (Rank)

When crime guns seized in the United States were traced, the District of Columbia ranked at No. 5118 out of 51 US jurisdictions as a source of weapons for interstate gun trafficking

MeasuresGun Regulation

Firearm Regulation – Guiding Policy

The regulation of guns in the District of Columbia is categorised as restrictive19

Firearm Law

Guiding gun control legislation in the District of Columbia includes the District of Columbia Code 201220

Firearm Regulation Authority

Guns in the District of Columbia are regulated by the District Council21 22 23

Right to Possess Firearms

In the District of Columbia, the right to private gun ownership is conditionally guaranteed by the US Constitution,24 as limited by federal law.25 Local law does not include a similar right.26 22 23

Restricted Firearms and Ammunition

In the District of Columbia, civilians are not allowed to possess machine guns,27assault weapons,28 .50 calibre rifles29 and large capacity ammunition magazines30 2223

Regulation of Automatic Weapons

In the District of Columbia, private possession of fully automatic weapons is prohibited27 31 22 23

Regulation of Semiautomatic Assault Weapons

In the District of Columbia, private possession of semi-automatic assault weapons is prohibited with only narrow exemptions28 22 23

Regulation of Handguns

In the District of Columbia, private possession of handguns (pistols and revolvers) is prohibited28 22 23

Gun Ownership and Possession

In the District of Columbia, only licensed gun owners32 33 22 23 may lawfully acquire, possess or transfer a firearm or ammunition

Genuine Reason Required for Firearm Possession

Gun owners and buyers in the District of Columbia are required to prove genuine reason to possess a firearm, for example: self-defence32 22 23

Minimum Age for Firearm Possession

The minimum age for gun ownership in the District of Columbia is 21 years34 22 23

Gun Licence Background Checks

An applicant for a firearm licence in the District of Columbia must pass a background check which considers mental, health and criminal32 22 23 records

Domestic Violence and Firearms

Where a past history, or apprehended likelihood of family violence exists, the law in the District of Columbia stipulates35 22 23 that firearm possession should be denied or revoked

Firearm Safety Training

In the District of Columbia, an understanding of firearm safety and the law, tested in a theoretical and/or practical training course is required32 22 23

Firearm Registration

Civilian Gun Registration

In the District of Columbia, the law requires36 22 23 that a record of the acquisition, possession and transfer of each privately held firearm be retained in an official register

Gun Dealer Record Keeping

In the District of Columbia, licensed firearm dealers are required37 22 23 to keep a record of each firearm or ammunition purchase, sale or transfer on behalf of a regulating authority

Gun Sales and Transfers

Background Checks for Private Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm in a private sale in the District of Columbia is obliged38 22 23 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Background Checks on Dealer Gun Sales

The buyer of a firearm from a licensed gun dealer in the District of Columbia is obliged38 22 23 to pass official background checks before taking possession

Regulation of Private Gun Sales

In the District of Columbia, the private sale and transfer of firearms is prohibited39 2223

Regulation of Dealer Gun Sales

In the District of Columbia, dealing in firearms by way of business without a valid gun dealer’s licence is unlawful37 22 23

Limit on Gun Dealer Sales

In the District of Columbia, the number and type of firearms which can be sold by a licensed gun dealer to a single gun owner is limited to 1 every 30 days (handguns only)40 22 23

Number of Licensed Gun Dealers

The number of licensed firearm dealers in the District of Columbia is reported to be 2011: 2741

Waiting Period for Gun Possession

In the District of Columbia, the minimum wait for a lawful firearm purchase to be completed is 10 days42 22 23

Regulation of Gun Shows

In the District of Columbia, gun shows and temporary firearm dealing events are not regulated43 22 23 in law

Storage and Transport of Guns and Ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations – Private

Firearm regulations in the District of Columbia include44 22 23 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of private guns and ammunition

Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations – Dealer

Firearm regulations in the District of Columbia include37 45 22 23 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition by licensed arms dealers

Firearm and Ammunition Transport Regulations

Regulations in the District of Columbia include46 44 22 23 written specifications for the lawful safe storage of firearms and ammunition while in transit

Marking and Tracing Guns and Ammunition

Firearm Marking

In the District of Columbia, a unique identifying mark on each firearm is required by law47 48 49 50 51 22 23

Firearm Tracing

In the District of Columbia, state authorities carry out47 22 23 recognised arms tracing and tracking procedures

Ballistic Marking of Firearms and Ammunition

In the District of Columbia, state authorities employ47 22 23 ballistic fingerprinting technology to trace guns and ammunition

Carrying Guns

Carrying Guns Openly in Public

In the District of Columbia, carrying a firearm in plain view in a public place is prohibited for handguns, rifles or shotguns52 22 23

Carrying Hidden Handguns in Public

In the District of Columbia, carrying a concealed firearm in a public place is prohibited53 22 23

Gun Free Zones

In the District of Columbia, private guns are prohibited in gun free zones54 46 and schools55 22 23

Short References

1.
Okoro, Catherine A., David E. Nelson, James A. Mercy, Lina S. Balluz, Alex E. Crosby and Ali H. Mokdad.2002.‘Table 1: Prevalence Estimates of Adults With Household Firearms, 2002.’ Prevalence of Household Firearms and Firearm-Storage Practices in the 50 States and the District of Columbia: Findings From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002.Elk Grove Village IL:Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics,1 January. (Q8392)Full Citation

2.
North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics.2002.‘Question: Are any firearms now kept in or around your home? Include those kept in a garage, outdoor storage area, car, truck, or other motor vehicle.’ BRFSS Survey Results 2001 for Nationwide.Atlanta GA:Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System / BRFSS, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC,2 September. (Q8391)Full Citation

3.
Azrael, Deborah, Philip J. Cook and Matthew Miller.2004.‘Table AIV: Firearms Prevalence by State Estimated from HICRC and from FS/S.’ State and Local Prevalence of Firearms Ownership Measurement, Structure, and Trends.New York NY:Journal of Quantitative Criminology,1 March. (Q8325)Full Citation

4.
CDC WISQARS.2013.‘Injury Mortality Reports 1999 and Onwards (USA).’ Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System / CDC WISQARS.Atlanta:National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC,1 January. (Q1377)Full Citation

5.
6.
FBI.2013.‘Crime in the United States / CIUS.’ Uniform Crime Reports / UCR.Washington, DC:US Federal Bureau of Investigation,29 January. (Q1978)Full Citation

7.
Rokaw, William M., James A. Mercy and Jack C. Smith.1990.‘Comparing Death Certificate Data with FBI Crime Reporting Statistics on US Homicides.’ Public Health Reports.Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),1 September. (Q6535)Full Citation

8.
9.
GunPolicy.org.2011.‘Calculated Rates – District of Columbia.’ Historical Population Data – USCB International Data Base.Suitland, MD:US Census Bureau Population Division,1 April. (Q7196)Full Citation

10.
CDC.2013.‘Underlying Cause of Death, Results.’ CDC WONDER Online Database.Atlanta GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / CDC, National Center for Health Statistics,8 July. (Q6875)Full Citation

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
FBI.2013.‘Supplementary Homicide Report Listing by State 2009-2011 – Justifiable Homicides.’ FBI Supplementary Homicide Report 1995-2011.Washington DC:US Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program,23 January. (Q6872)Full Citation

16.
FBI.2013.‘Supplementary Homicide Report Listing by State 2002-2008 – Justifiable Homicides.’ FBI Supplementary Homicide Report 1995-2011.Washington DC:US Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program,23 January. (Q6873)Full Citation

17.
FBI.2013.‘Supplementary Homicide Report Listing by State 1995-2001 – Justifiable Homicides.’ FBI Supplementary Homicide Report 1995-2011.Washington DC:US Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program,23 January. (Q6874)Full Citation

18.
MAIG.2010.‘Part II: Identifying the Rates at which States “Export” Crime Guns.’ Trace the Guns: The Link between Gun Laws and Interstate Gun Trafficking.New York NY:Mayors Against Illegal Guns (MAIG),1 September. (Q8321)Full Citation

19.
Newton, George D and Franklin E Zimring.1969.‘Firearm Licensing: Permissive v Restrictive.’ Firearms & Violence in American Life: A staff report submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.Washington, DC:US Government Printing Office,1 January. (Q22)Full Citation

20.
District of Columbia.2013.‘District of Columbia Code 2012.’ Council of the District of Columbia.Washington DC:Council of the District of Columbia,10 October. (Q8004)Full Citation

21.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 1-201.01 et seq, etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Local Authority to Regulate Firearms in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January.(Q7704)Full Citation

22.
Cage, Feilding, Greg Chen and Gabriel Dance.2013.‘Gun Laws in the US, State by State – Interactive.’ The Guardian.New York NY:The Guardian,16 January. (Q7938)Full Citation

23.
Wikipedia.2013.‘Gun Laws in the United States by State.’ Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.San Francisco CA:Wikimedia Foundation,7 October. (Q7937)Full Citation

24.
USA.1970.‘Second Amendment to the Constitution.’ Constitution of the United States, The Bill of Rights.Washington DC:Congress of the United States of America,1 January. (Q1954)Full Citation

25.
Scalia, J.2008.‘District of Columbia et al. v. Heller.’ Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.Washington, DC:Supreme Court of the United States,26 June. (Q8502)Full Citation

26.
District of Columbia.2010.‘State Right to Bear Arms in the District of Columbia.’ Firearms Law Database.San Francisco CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,2 September. (Q7934)Full Citation

27.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.02(a)(2), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Machine Guns and Automatic Firearms in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7783)Full Citation

28.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.02(a)(6), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Assault Weapons in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7784)Full Citation

29.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.02(a)(7), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Fifty Caliber Rifles in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7785)Full Citation

30.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2506.01(b), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Large Capacity Ammunition Magazines in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7786)Full Citation

31.
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32.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-2502.01, etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Prohibited Purchasers Generally in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January.(Q7262)Full Citation

33.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-2502.01, etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Licensing of Gun Owners and Purchasers in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7899)Full Citation

34.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.03(a)(1), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Minimum Age to Purchase and Possess in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q6966)Full Citation

35.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.03(a)(4)(D), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Domestic Violence and Firearms in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7015)Full Citation

36.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-2502.01, etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Registration of Firearms in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7497)Full Citation

37.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2504.01(b), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Dealer Regulations in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7589)Full Citation

38.
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39.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.01(a), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Private Sales in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7404)Full Citation

40.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.03(e), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Multiple Purchases and Sales of Firearms in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7311)Full Citation

41.
USA.2012.‘Federal Firearms Licensees by State 2011.’ Firearms Commerce in the United States: Annual Statistical Update 2012.Washington DC:US Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),1 January. (Q6787)Full Citation

42.
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43.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-2502.01, etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Gun Shows in the District of Columbia.San Francisco CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,2 January. (Q7883)Full Citation

44.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2507.02(a). etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Firearm and Ammunition Storage Regulations in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7366)Full Citation

45.
LCPGV.2012.‘Summary of State Laws Regulating Firearms Dealers – Security Measures.’ Firearms Law Database – Dealer Regulations Policy Summary.San Francisco CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,18 May.(Q7549)Full Citation

46.
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47.
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48.
USA.2012.‘Marking of All SALW at Time of Manufacture.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,3 August. (Q6784)Full Citation

49.
USA.2008.‘Implementing of the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1588)Full Citation

50.
USA.2008.‘Implementing of the International Tracing Instrument (ITI).’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,1 January. (Q1590)Full Citation

51.
USA.2007.‘Marking of All SALW at Time of Manufacture.’ National Report of the United States of America on its Implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).New York:Permanent Mission of the United States to the United Nations,17 July. (Q1593)Full Citation

52.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4504(a), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Open Carrying in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7798)Full Citation

53.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4504(a), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Concealed Weapons Permitting in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January.(Q7552)Full Citation

54.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4502.01(b), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Other Location Restrictions in the District of Columbia.San Francisco CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,2 January.(Q7860)Full Citation

55.
District of Columbia.2012.‘D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4502.01(b), etc..’ Firearms Law Database – Guns in Schools in the District of Columbia.San Francisco, CA:Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence,3 January. (Q7808)Full Citation

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